## Kindergarten Overview: Objects, Positions, and Quantity

Kindergarten students make a very important step in their mathematical education — in this grade, they transition to abstract thinking. Whereas in Pre-Kindergarten they lightly touched upon cubes as abstract objects, in Kindergarten they will become familiar with the Number Line and Base-10 Blocks. Here, the first math signs appear (plus and minus). Students will reinforce and expand their knowledge of basic geometry and learn principles of sorting objects and comparing them, which will be necessary for Grade 1, where students begin to compare numbers. In the second half of the Kindergarten curriculum, work with simple equations based on various visual models begins. Students strengthen their knowledge of numbers to 10 and begin to learn numbers to 20, which prepares them for Grade 1.

Emerging readers can easily work with Happy Numbers on their own, as our app features text read aloud in English and Spanish as many times as your students need.

Happy Numbers provides Kindergarten teachers with robust and comprehensive software, which can be used for whole-group instruction, independent centers, and at-home practice. It also helps collect personalized data about the learning path of each student. Learn more about the Happy Numbers curriculum for Kindergarten in this overview!

All exercises mentioned below are part of the Happy Numbers course for Kindergarten. Visit HappyNumbers.com to explore our full curriculum and sign up for a free trial.

## Review Pre-K

First of all, students will briefly repeat Pre-K materials. Happy Numbers reminds them of basic logical terms, such as same and different, and also principles of sorting.

Then they move on to a review of numbers up to 5. Here appears the Number Line, a new visual model, which is more abstract than others students have seen before. In this task, students match numbers written in different styles:

In addition, students review counting in various exercises, including those with manipulatives. A tangible experience helps them understand the meaning of the process before they move to more abstract math operations.

In Module 1, students work with numbers from 0 to 10. Tasks are simple, and the curriculum includes many repetitions of similar scenarios with different numbers. Practice makes perfect, doesn’t it? Using repetition, Happy Numbers leads students to catch the conception.

There are so many ways to apply the Number Line! Previously, students used it for matching. Here, they review number sequencing on the Number Line with the help of a friendly grasshopper.

Happy Numbers varies the notation to make the task just a little harder. Look at those octopuses! How is it possible not to fall in love with math with such a scenario?

It’s important for Kindergarten students to have a strong mental grasp on numbers to 10. That’s why in the next exercise Happy Numbers asks them to count the birds while they are flying away.

Students have already reviewed material about same and different objects. They’re learning to count unlike and unaligned objects, a skill which is now merged with number matching. What a pleasure to count cute kittens!

Module 1 of the Kindergarten curriculum ends with addition and subtraction of 1 with abstract visual models and with numerical notation. Students try it on a Number Line:

…  with a model of Base-10 Blocks:

… and using equations with just numerals:

## Extension of Basic Geometry Knowledge

The next Module is dedicated to “Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Shapes.” Students review shapes and their names learned in Pre-K…

…as well as become familiar with polygons and hexagons and their properties.

They choose specific shapes hidden inside the cosmic landscape to color and complete the picture. This helps them memorize shape names and learn to quickly identify them.

Then Happy Numbers increases the complexity of the task by asking students to fill figures with different colors depending on their shape.

In topic B, students come to spatial orientation. They learn such terms as above/below:

up/down, in front of/behind, between/beside, and near.

## Teaser of Comparing

Kindergarteners are not yet ready to learn comparison as it is, but they can already notice such differences as longer, taller, and shorter. Several tasks with visually highlighted attributes of objects will prepare them for real comparing in Grade 1.

They also learn to determine heavier and lighter objects.

In the next exercise, Happy Numbers labels the picture with the quantity to smoothly transition students from concrete objects to numeric notation.

Happy Numbers includes manipulatives to push students toward grasping the pattern. They now arrange objects and compare them visually, without counting. There are exercises with similar and dissimilar objects and some with objects that aren’t aligned. These exercises provide training for numerical comparison.

## Number Bonds

The second half of the Kindergarten curriculum is mostly devoted to the construction and solution of simple equations. Students start to determine relationships between a number and its parts and record them through number bonds. This is the basic concept that visually explains how actually numbers work.

Number bonds build the foundation before introducing addition and subtraction. With the help of color-coding, students can easily figure out number parts.

They also learn to translate a full number bond into an equation.

## Introducing Simple Equations

After practicing with number bonds, students will more easily grasp the connection between concrete and abstract. Happy Numbers has them match the visual model of real objects and more abstract Base-10 Blocks:

Familiarity with abstract cube models and color-coding helps students solve problems once real objects are removed.

Students learn to model the task visually by themselves. Here they use the Number Line to build an equation, which will be recorded by the software.

Happy Numbers combines knowledge of several types of notation and different levels of abstraction in another exercise. It provides an equation scenario represented by real objects, which students need to model with Base-10 Blocks and record as an equation.

In Topic D, students start to progress into subtraction.

Zero is also an important hero in math, so there are special exercises incorporating it. Getting zero as an answer to an equation is clearly shown on a Number Line.

With the expectation that students have learned the skills for solving simple equations, Happy Numbers increases the numbers. Now they solve equations with numbers up to 10.

## Numbers up to 20

At the end of the Kindergarten curriculum, Happy Numbers sets up a block of exercises about numbers up to 20. For Kindergarteners, it’s not really necessary to count beyond 10, but in preparation for Grade 1, it will be very helpful. Module 5 is devoted to numbers from 10 to 20. It starts with the formation of a two-digit number on a visual model with real objects shown without mathematical signs.

Students learn new numbers and their sequence on a vertical Number Line.

Then they move on to a more abstract model of Base-10 Blocks. If there is a mistake, Happy Numbers will remind them of the pattern of tens and ones they mastered previously.

Happy Numbers briefly touches on addition and subtraction of tens and ones. In the next grade, students will work a lot with the strategy of making ten first. Here, they might add 10, subtract 10, or get 10 as an answer.

The main aim of the Kindergarten curriculum is to build fluency with whole numbers up to 10 and lay the foundation for further study of numbers beyond 10. Students should master the standard and word forms and easily quantify them by a visual model. That’s why Happy Numbers pays so much attention to the visual representation of numbers and aligns exercises in such a way that students will get a comprehensive understanding of basic numbers and their formation, moving from work with concrete objects to abstract models. Another important goal of this grade is the description of shapes and space. New terms such as above/below, up/down, in front/behind and between/beside allow students to take a fresh look at the world around them, to better navigate in space, and to prepare for more complex tasks in geometry. Mathematics is not just the science of numbers – it allows students to broaden their horizons, strengthen logical thinking, and develop a growth mindset. That is why it’s truly important to provide them with the best educational software which will both help them expand their knowledge and will collect data about their achievements, strengths, and weaknesses, important for a teacher. Happy Numbers will be glad to become a part of your Kindergarten curriculum and do our best for your students!

## How can you enhance your instruction with Happy Numbers?

It’s incredibly easy to bring Happy Numbers to your class, and you can do so at any point in the school year. Sign up now or watch a 1-minute video that will guide you through the setup:

If you have any additional questions, our support team is always here to assist you. Click the blue messenger icon at the bottom right corner of this page to start a conversation with them.